Department of Entomology


Timothy Paineucr entomology

Professor of Entomology

Location: Entomology 239
Tel: (951) 827-5835
E-mail: timothy.paine@ucr.edu


Research Specialization - The long-term mission oriented objective of research conducted in my laboratory is to improve integrated pest management of insects affecting woody ornamental plants. The primary research focus is to develop a better understanding of the biology and ecology of the herbivorous insects through studies of their interactions with host plants, competitors, and natural enemies, and determine the influence of environmental stress on those interactions. Recommendations to modify management practices emerge from this research, resulting in more judicious insecticide use and increased reliance on biological and cultural control, while maintaining the aesthetic value of the plants.


BA History 1973
University of California, Davis
BS Entomology 1973
University of California, Davis
PhD Entomology 1981
University of California, Davis


2011 Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America Distinguished Teaching Award

2010 International Society of Arboriculture, Western Chapter, Arboricultural Research Award 2010 University of California Riverside Innovative Teaching Award 2009 Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America Distinguished Achievement Award in Horticultural Entomology 2009 Entomological Society of America Distinguished Achievement Award in Horticultural Entomology 2008-2009 - National Academies Education Fellow in the Life Sciences
2006 - Fellow, Entomological Society of America
2006 - Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America Distinguished Teaching Award
2005 - Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
2004 - University of Pretoria Hans Merensky Visiting Scientist
2004 - University of California, Riverside Distinguished Teaching Award
2001 - American Nursey & Landscape Association Norman Jay Coleman Award for Research
1999-2000 - President, Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America
1999-2000 - UC Riverside Entomology Graduate Student Association Faculty Member of the Year
1999 - Entomological Society of America Recognition Award in Urban Entomology
1998 - University of Queensland Visiting Scholar Award
1997 - Entomological Society of America Pacific Branch Distinguished Teaching Award
1996 - International Society of Arboriculture, Western Chapter, Arboricultural Research Award
1995 - Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America Distinguished Teaching Award
1994 - La Trobe University Honorary Visiting Fellow, Victoria, Australia
1992 - USDA Distinguished Service Team Award (with T.S. Bellows) for Environmental and Natural Resource Protection
1992 - California Association of Nurserymen Annual Research Award
1992 - Centinela Chapter, California Association of Nurserymen Research Award
1991 - Orange County Chapter, California Association of Nurserymen Research Award
1988 - U.C. Ornamental Horticulture Education Coninuing Conference Service in Counties Award
1980 - Outstanding Graduate Student Award, Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America

Research Area

Fundamental research projects in the laboratory have included studies of the biology and ecology of introduced insects in urban environments. Plant communities in urban environments are often diverse combinations that are native or introduced in origin, rich in the number of species, and complex in structure and distribution. Insect communities change as new species are introduced. Interactions among the phytophagous insects are effected by the different growing conditions in these environments. At the boundaries of urban areas are native communities of plants and arthropods that suffer pressures from urbanization and anthropogenic pollution. We have examined the interactions of host suitability, host species susceptibility, and natural enemies on insect population biology. A recent focus of the biological control research has been to determine how natural enemies contribute to replacement of herbivore species in communities of introduced species. We have also conducted research on the pheromone communication systems of bark beetles and have examined the interactions among bark beetles, their associated fungi, and host conifers. As part of a interdisciplinary research focus on the impact of environmental stresses on interactions between plants and their herbivores, recent studies have been conducted on the effect of temperature, humidity and insolation on settling behavior and survival of a leaf-galling psyllid, the interactions between mycorrhizal fungus colonization of plants and the herbivore populations, and the influence of ozone and nitrogen deposition on arthropod communities associated with black oak, ponderosa pine, and bracken fern.


Publications last 5 years:

Wooley, S. C., and T. D. Paine.  2011.  Infection by mycorrhizal fungi increases natural enemy abundance on tobacco (Nicotiana rustica L.).  Environmental Entomology 40:36-41.

Paine, T. D., C. C. Hanlon, and F. J. Byrne.  2011.  Potential risks of systemic imidacloprid to parasitoid natural enemies of a cerambycid attacking Eucalyptus.  Biological Control.  56:175-178.

McDonnell, R.D., Rugman-Jones, P., Backeljau, T., Breugelmans, K., Jordaens, K., Stouthamer, R., Paine, T.D., and Gormally, M. J.  2011.  Molecular identification of the exotic slug Arion subfuscus sensu lato (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in California, with comments on the source location of introduced populations.  Biological Invasions.  13:61-66.

Paine, T. D., and C. C. Hanlon.  2010.  Integration of tactics for management of Eucalyptus herbivores: influence of moisture and nitrogen fertilization on red gum lerp psyllid colonization.  Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata.  137:290-295.

Paine, T.D., J. G. Millar, K. M. Daane.  2010.  Accumulation of pest insects on eucalyptus in California: random process or smoking gun.  Journal of Economic Entomology. 103:1943-1949.

McDonnell, R.D., T.D. Paine, R. Stouthamer, M. J. Gormally, and J.D. Harwood.  2008. Molecular and morphological evidence for the occurrence of two new species of invasive slugs in Kentucky, Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, and Arion hortensis d’Audebard de Férussac, 1819 (Arionidae: Stylommatophora).  Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science.  69:117-123.

Greenberg, L., J. N. Kabashima, C. J. Allison, M. K. Rust, J. H. Klotz, J.-P. Hurvois, and T. D. Paine. 2008.  Lethality of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) venom to Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) and other ant species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America.  101:1162-1168.

Hansen, A. K., Trumble, J.T., Stouthamer, R., and Paine T.D.  2008.  New Huanglongbing (HLB) Candidatus species, “C. Liberibacter psyllaurous”, found to infect tomato and potato is vectored by the psyllid Bactericerca cockerelli  (Sulc).  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  74:5862-5865.

Wang, Q, Millar, J.G., Reed, D.A., Mottern, J.L., Heraty, J.M., Triapitsyn, S.V., Paine, T.D. and He, X.Z.  2008.  Development of a strategy for selective collection of a parasitoid attacking one member of a large herbivore guild.  Environmental  Entomology. 101:1771-1778.

Mc Donnell, R.J, A. Hansen, T.D. Paine, and M.J. Gormally.  2008. A record of the invasive slug Veronicella cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1840) in California.  Veliger. 50:81-82.

Eatough Jones, M., T. D. Paine, and M. E. Fenn.  2008.  The effect of nitrogen additions on oak foliage and herbivore communities at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution. Environmental Pollution.  151:434-442.

Hansen, A.K., G. Jeong, T.D. Paine, and R. Stouthamer.  2007.  Frequency of secondary symbiont infection in an invasive psyllid relates to parasitism pressure on a geographic scale in California.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology.  73:7531-7535.

Wooley, S., and T.D. Paine.  2007.  Can intraspecific genetic variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus etunicatum) affect a mesophyll-feeding herbivore (Tupiocoris notatus Distant) in Nicotiana rustica L.?  Ecological Entomology.  32:428-434.

Mc Donnell, R.J., Paine, T.D. and Gormally, M.J.  2007 An investigation of trail-following behaviour in the malacophagous larvae of the sciomyzid flies Sepedon spinipes spinipes and Dictya montana. Journal of Insect Behavior. 20:367-376.

Kabashima, J.N., L. Greenberg, M.K. Rust, and T.D. Paine.  2007.  Aggressive interactions between Solenopsis invicta and Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100:148-154.

Casteel, C.L., L.L. Walling, and T.D. Paine.  2007. Effect of Mi-1.2 gene in Natal Host Plants on Behavior and Biology of the Tomato Psyllid Bactericerca cockerelli (Carter) (Hemiptera:  Psyllidae).  J. Entomological Science. 42:155-162

Mc Donnell, R.J. T.D. Paine, r.e. orth,  and M.J. Gormally.  2007.  Life History and biocontrol potential of Dictya montana Steyskal, 1954 (Sciomyzidae), a snail-killing fly. Pan-Pacific Entomologist  83:101-109.

 Reed, D.A., KA. Luhring, C.A. Stafford, A. Hansen, J.G. Millar, L.M. Hanks and T.D. Paine. 2007.  Host defensive response against an egg parasitoid involves cellular encapsulation and melanization. Biological Control. 41: 214-222.


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Riverside, CA 92521
Tel: (951) 827-1012

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