Department of Entomology


Bradley Mullensucr entom.

Professor of Entomology

Location: Entomology 268
Tel: (951) 827-5800
E-mail: bradley.mullens@ucr.edu


Research Specialization- veterinary entomology. Research in my laboratory focuses on the biology, ecology, and integrated management of arthropod pests of livestock, poultry and wildlife. This includes study of arthropods which cause direct losses (northern fowl mites, horn flies, stable flies), those which do not directly affect production but cause serious nuisance problems associated with confinement operations (house flies and little house flies), and certain vectors of important pathogens such as bluetongue virus in ruminants (biting midges). Studies are diverse and primarily field-oriented, although we often conduct laboratory studies in support of field problems. Our recent studies address interactions between poultry and their ectoparasites, bluetongue epidemiology and Culicoides vector biology, and horn fly population biology as influenced by novel repellents.


BS Agriculture/Animal Science 1976
University of Tennessee
MS Agricultural Biology (Entomology) 1979
University of Tennessee
PhD Entomology 1982
Cornell University


2012- Award for Medical, Veterinary and Urban Entomology, Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America

2011- Elected Fellow of the Entomological Society of America

2009- Recognition Award for contributions to agriculture, Entomological Society of America

2007- Elected Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society

2006-2005 - Royal Entomological Society (UK) award for best paper in the journal Medical and Veterinary Entomology

2005 - Lifetime Achievement Award in Veterinary Entomology

1998 - Entomological Society of America, Pacific Branch, Integrated Pest Management Award

Research Area

Research on integrated management of arthropod pests of livestock and poultry. Current research centers on 1) host-parasite relationships with the poultry ectoparasites Ornithonyssus and Menacanthus, 2) the biology, ecology and control of Culicoides vectors of bluetongue virus to wild and domestic ruminants and relationships to hemorrhagic disease epizootiology, 3) chemical, biological and cultural control of muscoid flies (Musca, Fannia, Stomoxys, Haematobia). I am also interested in using population biology tools to interpret effectiveness of control efforts for biting and pest flies.


Selected Publications 

Mullens, B. A., D. Soto, C. D. Martin, B. L. Callaham and A. C. Gerry. 2011. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) control evaluations using liquid formulations of diatomaceous earth, kaolin, sulfur, azadirachtin, and Beauveria bassiana on caged laying hens. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 21: 111-116.

Martin, C. D. and B. A. Mullens. 2012. Housing and Dustbathing Effects on Northern Fowl Mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and Chicken Body Lice (Menacanthus stramineus)on Hens. Med. Vet. Entomol. 26: 323-333.

Mayo, C. E., B. A. Mullens, A. C. Gerry, C. M. Barker, P. P. C. Mertens, S. Maan, N. Maan, I. A. Gardner, A. J. Guthrie and N. J. MacLachlan. 2012. The combination of abundance and infection rates of Culicoides sonorensis estimates risk of subsequent bluetongue virus infection of sentinel cattle on California dairy farms. Vet. Parasitol. 187: 295-301.

Gonzalez, M., S. Lopez, B. A. Mullens, T. Baldet and A. Goldarazena. 2013. A survey of Culicoides developmental sites on a farm in northern Spain, with a brief review of  immature habitats of European species. Vet. Parasitol. 91: 81-93.

Butler, S. M., R. D. Moon, N. C. Hinkle, J. G. Millar and J. S. McElfresh. 2013. Gonotrophic development and survival in field populations of Musca domestica (Diptera:Muscidae) at dairies in California, Minnesota and Georgia, and the relationship of fly age to relative abundance of (Z)-9-tricosene (muscalure). J. Med. Entomol. 50: 748-757.

Gryganskyi, A., R. A. Humber, J. E. Stajich, B. A. Mullens, I. M. Anishchenko and R. Vilgalys. 2013. Sequential utilization of hosts from different fly families by genetically distinct, sympatric populations within the Entomophthora muscae species complex. PLoS One 8: e71168.

Morag, N., B. A. Mullens and Y. Gottlieb. 2013. Assessment of survival and body size variation in Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as a function of Cardinium (Bacteriodetes) infection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 6260-6263.

Soto, D., F. E. Fowler, B. A. Sandelin and B. A. Mullens. 2014. Face flies (Musca autumnalis)(Diptera: Muscidae) and the host-specific nematode Paraiotonchium autumnale (Tylenchida: Iotonchiidae) in southern California. J. Med. Entomol. 51: 288- 292.

Mayo C. E., C. J. Osborne, B. A. Mullens, A. C. Gerry, I. A. Gardner, W. K Reisen, C. M. Barker and N. J. MacLachlan. 2014. Seasonal Variation and Impact of Waste-Water Lagoons as Larval Habitat on the Population Dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at Two Dairy Farms in Northern California. PLoS One 9: e89633

Halbritter, D. A. and B. A. Mullens. 2011. Responses of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae) and Menacanthus stramineus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) to Gradients of Temperature, Light, and Humidity, with Comments on Microhabitat Selection on Chickens. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 251-261.

Chen, B. L., K. L. Haith and B. A. Mullens. 2011. Beak condition drives abundance and grooming-mediated competitive asymmetry in a poultry ectoparasite community.   Parasitol. 138: 748-757.

Mullens, B. A., B. L. Chen and J. P. Owen. 2010. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens. Poult. Sci. 89: 2565-2572.

Mohr, R. M., B. A. Mullens and A. C. Gerry. 2011. Diel patterns of female host-seeking, male swarming, and sugar feeding in the “canyon fly”, Fannia conspicua (Diptera: Muscidae) in southern California. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 188-195.

Mohr, R. M., B. A. Mullens and A. C. Gerry. 2011. Evaluation of ammonia, human sweat, and bovine blood as attractants for female “canyon fly”, Fannia conspicua (Diptera: Muscidae), in southern California. J. Vect. Ecol. (in press).

Lay, D. C., M. Fulton, P. Y. Hester, D. M. Karcher, J. Kjaer, J. A. Mench|, B. A. Mullens,  R. C. Newberry, C. J. Nicol, N. P. O’Sullivan, and R. E. Porter. 2010. Hen welfare in different housing systems. Poult. Sci. 36: 55-58.

Butler, S. M. and B. A. Mullens. 2010. Adult house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) activity and age of females near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene on a southern California dairy. J. Econ. Entomol. (103: 1929-1936).

 Mullens, B. A., A. C. Gerry, V. Sarto i Monteys, M. Pinna and A. Gonzalez. 2010. Field    studies on Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) activity and response to deltamethrin applications to sheep in northeastern Spain. J. Med. Entomol. 47: 106-110.

 Mullens, B. A., A. C. Gerry and A. N. Diniz. 2010. Field and laboratory trials of a novel metaflumizone house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) bait in California. J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 550-556.

 Mullens, B. A., W. R. Reifenrath and S. M. Butler. 2009. Laboratory trials of fatty acids as repellents or antifeedants against house flies, horn flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Mgmt. Sci. 65: 1360-1366.

Gerry, A. C., V. Sarto I Monteys, J.-O. Moreno Vidal, O. Francino and B. A. Mullens. 2009. Biting Rates of Culicoides Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on Sheep in      Northeastern Spain in Relation to Midge Capture using UV Light and Carbon Dioxide Baited Traps. J. Med. Entomol. 46: 615-624.

Butler, S. M., R. D. Moon, N. C. Hinkle, J. G. Millar, J. S. McElfresh and B. A. Mullens. 2009. Characterization of age and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in mating pairs of house fly, Musca domestica, collected in the field. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23: 426-442.

Owen, J.P., M.E. Delaney, C.J. Cardona, A. A. Bickford and B.A Mullens. 2009. Host inflammatory response governs fitness in an avian ectoparasite, the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum). Int. J. Parasitol. 39: 789-799.

Mullens, B. A., J. P. Owen, D. R. Kuney, C. E. Szijj and K. A. Klingler Temporal changes in distribution, prevalence and intensity of northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum)parasitism in commercial caged laying hens, with a comprehensive economic analysis of parasite impact. Vet. Parasitol. 160: 116-133.

Mullens, B. A., Sarto I Monteys, V. and Przhboro, A. A. 2008. Mermithid parasitism in the Ceratopogonidae: A literature review and critical assessment of host impact and potential for biological control. Russian Entomol. J. 17: 87-113.

Owen, J. P., M. E. Delany and B. A. Mullens. 2008. MHC haplotype involvement in avian resistance to an ectoparasite. Immunogenetics 60: 621-631.

Chen. B. L. and B. A. Mullens. 2008. Temperature and humidity effects on off-host survival of the northern fowl mite (Acari: Macronyssidae) and the chicken body louse (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 637-646.

Butler, S. A., A. C. Gerry and B. A. Mullens. 2007. House fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity near baits containing (Z)-9-tricosene and efficacy of commercial toxic fly baits on a southern California dairy. J. Econ. Entomol. 100:1489-1495.

Mullens, B. A., K._S. Lii, Y. Mao, J. A. Meyer, N. G. Peterson and C. E. Szijj. 2006.
Behavioural responses of dairy cattle to the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in an open field environment. Med. Vet. Entomol. 20: 122-137.

Mullens, B. A., C. J. Cardona, L. McClellan, C. E. Szijj and J. P. Owen. 2006. Culicoides
as a vector of Haemoproteus lophortyx to quail in California, USA. Vet.
Parasitol. 140: 35-43.

Mullens, B. A. and A. C. Gerry. 2006. Life history and seasonal abundance of canyon flies (Fannia benjamini complex)(Diptera: Muscidae) in southern California. J. Med. Entomol. 43: 192-199.

Gerry, A. C. and B. A. Mullens. 2006. Adult canyon fly (Fannia benjamini complex)(Diptera: Muscidae) activity in southern California and use of CO2 as an attractant. J. Med. Entomol. 43: 467-472.

Mullens, B. A., K.S. Lii, Y. Mao, J. A. Meyer, N. G. Peterson and C. E. Szijj. 2006. Behavioural responses of dairy cattle to the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in an open field environment. Med. Vet. Entomol. 20: 122-137. 

Owen, J.P., B.A. Mullens, R.T. Carde and K.A. Justus. 2005. Northern Fowl Mite Orientation in a Thermal Gradient and Evidence for Idothetic Course Control. Physiol. Entomol. 30: 293-302

Takano-Lee, M., J.D. Edman, B.A. Mullens and J.M. Clark. 2005. Transmission potential of the human head louse, Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Int. J. Dermatology 44: (10) 811-816.

Mullens, B.A. and N.G. Peterson. 2005. Relationship Between Rainfall and Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Abundance on California Dairies. J. Med. Entomol. 42: 705-708.

Mullens, B.A., J.P. Owen, D.E. Heft and R.V. Sobeck. 2005. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and other biting flies associated with equine dermatitis on the Palos Verdes Peninsula of southern California. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 21: 90-95.

Kilpinen, O. and B.A. Mullens. 2004. Effect of food deprivation on response of the mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, to heat. Med. Vet. Entomol. 18: 368-371.

Takano-Lee, M., J.D. Edman, B.A. Mullens and J.M. Clark. 2004. Assessment of "home remedies" to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J. Pediatric Nursing. 19: 393-398.

Owen, J.P. and B.A. Mullens. 2004. Influence of Heat and Vibration on the Northern Fowl Mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago)(Acari:Macronyssidae). J. Med. Entomol. 41: 865-872.

Darbro, J.M. and B.A. Mullens. 2004. Assessing Insecticide Resistance and Aversion to Methomyl-treated Toxic Baits in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Southern California, USA. Pest Mgmt. Sci. 60: 901-908.

Mullens, B.A., D.R. Kuney, N.C. Hinkle and C.E. Szijj. 2004. Producer Attitudes and Control Practices for Northern Fowl Mites in Southern California. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 365-374.

Mullens, B.A., R.K. Velten, N.C. Hinkle, D.R. Kuney and C.E. Szijj. 2004. Acaricide Resistance in Northern Fowl Mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) Populations on Caged Layer Operations in Southern California. Poultry Sci. 83: 365-374.

Takano-Lee, M., J.D. Edman, R.K. Velten, B.A. Mullens and J.M. Clark. 2003. An Automated Feeding Apparatus for In Vitro Maintenance of the Human Head Louse (Pediculus capitis) J. Med. Entomol. 40(6): 795-799.

Takano-Lee, M., K.S. Yoon, J.D. Edman, B.A. Mullens and J.M. Clark. 2003. In vivo and in vitro Rearing of Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J. Med. Entomol. 40: 628-635.

Smith, H. and B.A. Mullens. 2003. Seasonal Activity, Size and Parity of Culicoides occidentalis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in a coastal southern California Salt Marsh. J. Med. Entomol. 40: 352-355.

Bonneau, K.R., C.D. DeMaula, B.A. Mullens and N.J. MacLachlan. 2002. Duration of Viraemia Infectious to Culicoides sonorensis in Bluetongue Virus-Infected Cattle and Sheep. Veb. Microbiol. 88: 115-125.

Mullens, B.A., C.E. Szijj and N.C. Hinkle. 2002. Oviposition and Development of Fannia spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) on Poultry Manure of Low Moisture Levels. Environ. Entomol. 31: 588-593.

Kalsbeek, V. B. A. Mullens, and J. B. Jespersen. 2001. Field Studies of Entomophthora (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales)-Induced Behavioral Fever in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in Denmark. Biol. Cont. 21: 264-273.

Mullens, B. A., A. C. Gerry and R. K. Velten. 2001. Failure of a Permethrin Treatment Regime to Protect Cattle Against Bluetongue. J. Med. Entomol. 38: 760-762.

Bonneau, K. R., B. A. Mullens and N. J. MacLachlan. 2001. Genetic drift and "founder effect" of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of bluetongue virus during passage between sheep, cattle and Culicoides sonorensis. J. Virol. 75: 8298-8305

Braverman, Y., F. Chechik and B.A. Mullens. 2001. The Interaction Between Climatic Factors and Bluetongue Outbreaks in Israel and the Eastern Mediterranean and the Feasibility of Establishing Bluetonuge-Free Zones. Israel J. Vet. Med. 56: 99-109.

Bonneau, K.R., J.B. Topol, A.C. Gerry, B.A. Mullens, R.K. Velten and N.J. MacLachlan. 2001. Variation in the NS3/NS3A Gene of Bluetongue Viruses Contained in Culicoides sonorensis Collected from a Single Site in Southern California. Virus Research 84: 59-65.

Mullens, B.A., N.C. Hinkle and C.E. Szijj. 2000. Monitoring northern fowl mites (Acari: Macronyssidae) in caged laying hens: feasibility of an egg-based sampling system. J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 1045-1054.

Gerry, A.C. and B.A. Mullens. 2000. Seasonal abundance and survivorship of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) at a southern California dairy, with reference to potential bluetongue virus transmission and persistence. J. Med. Entomol. 37: 675-688

Breidenbaugh, M.S. and B. A. Mullens. 1999. Two new western Nearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Cereatopogonidae) described from all stages. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 101:149-163.

Breidenbaugh, M. S. and B. A. Mullens. 1999. Descriptions of immature stages of six Culicoides Latreille spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from desert mountain ranges in southern California, with notes on life histories and rearing technique. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 101: 839-867.

Mullens, B. A., R. K. Velten and B. A. Federici. 1999. Iridescent virus infection in Culicoides variipennis sonorensis and interactions with the mermithid parasite Heleidomermis magnapapula. J. Invert. Pathol. 73: 231-233.

Mullens, B.A. and K.A. Luhring. 1998. Age-dependent parasitism of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) be Heleidomermis magnapapula (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and considerations for assesing parasite impact. Biol. Cont. 11:49-57.

Mullens, B.A. and A.C. Gerry. 1998. Comparison of bait cattle and carbon dioxide-baited suction traps for collecting Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 35:245-250.

Mullens, B.A., N.C. Hinkle and C.E. Szijj. 1996. Impact of alternating manure removal schedules on pest flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and associated predators (Coleoptera: Histeridae, Staphylinidae; Acarina: Macrochelidae) in caged-layer poultry manure in southern California. J. Econ. Entomol. 89:1406-1417.

Mullens, B.A. & R. K. Velten. 1994. Laboratory culture and life history of Heleidomermis magnapapula in its host, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J. Nematol. 26: 1-10.

Mullens, B.A. & C.E. Dada. 1992. Spatial and seasonal distribution of potential vectors of hemorrhagic disease viruses to peninsular bighorn sheep in the Santa Rosa Mountains of southern California. J. Wildl. Dis. 28:192-205.

Mullens, B.A., J.L. Rodriguez & J.A. Meyer. 1987. An epizootiological study of Entomophthora muscae in muscoid fly populations on southern California poultry facilities, with emphasis on Musca domestica. Hilgardia 55: 41 p.

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